The Daily 202: Trump’s Katrina? Influx of Puerto Ricans after Hurricane Maria could tip Florida toward Democrats.

 In World

With Breanne Deppisch and Joanie Greve

THE BIG IDEA: More than 50 million ballots were cast by Floridians in the seven presidential elections from 1992 through 2016. If you add them all up, only 18,000 votes separate the Republicans from the Democrats. That is 0.04 percent.

Florida is rightfully considered the swingiest of swing states. Control of the White House in 2000 came down to a few hundred hanging chads — and one vote on the Supreme Court. The past four statewide elections — two governor’s races and two presidentials — were all decided by a single percentage point.

So it could be quite politically significant that tens of thousands of Puerto Ricans, maybe more, are expected to permanently move into Florida as the result of Hurricane Maria. The Category 4 storm has wreaked havoc on the U.S. territory of 3.4 million. Most of the island still doesn’t have power a week after Maria made landfall. There are shortages of fuel, medicine, food and running water. Infrastructure that was already crumbling is in ruins.

Puerto Ricans are American citizens, thanks to a law passed in 1917. As a result, all they need to settle in the mainland is a plane ticket or a berth on a boat.

Their citizenship entitles them to vote, and they tend to overwhelmingly support Democratic candidates.

Florida-based Republican operative Rick Wilson thinks the hurricane might be a game changer. “If you put an influx of 100,000 Puerto Ricans who vote Democratic eight times out of 10 in the Orlando area, there you go,” he said. “Nobody can afford a big change in the registration pattern or a change in the voting pattern that offsets Florida’s narrowness. You could end up with a big advantage for Democrats in 2018 if they play it right. The Puerto Ricans would be coming here because they feel like Donald Trump left them high and dry. That won’t fade away. … It could be a very, very big deal.”

Hurricane Katrina had an impact on Texas politics because almost half a million people, mostly African Americans, relocated there from the New Orleans area. “It made Louisiana more red and Texas a bit more blue,” said Wilson, who has long been critical of Trump. “Texas could absorb it.”

“I don’t know if you can say this changes the whole demographic game,” said Democratic strategist Steve Schale, who directed Barack Obama’s Florida campaign in 2008 and was a senior adviser in 2012. “There are still 20 million people, so a couple hundred thousand here or there isn’t a huge deal. But, at the margins, everything matters! It doesn’t take a lot.”

Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) has told the White House that the federal government needs to quickly take over recovery efforts on the island to prevent a Hurricane “Katrina-style” disaster. “This has the potential of being a serious humanitarian crisis in a U.S. territory impacting United States citizens,” Rubio told Politico’s Marc Caputo on Tuesday after returning from a trip to inspect the dire situation in San Juan.

— The number of people of Puerto Rican origin living in Florida already surpassed 1 million in 2015, which is more than double what it was in 2000. Cuban Americans now represent less than one-third of Florida’s eligible Hispanic voters.

A deep recession on the island, combined with a crime wave, caused an exodus to Florida. Puerto Rico’s population declined by 7 percent from 2010 to 2015, or roughly 300,000 people. The island’s government, saddled with $73 billion in debt, declared bankruptcy in May. Maria may supercharge these long-term trends and prompt many who had been trying to hold on to finally give up and flee.

They have primarily settled in the Orlando metropolitan area, which is part of the pivotal Interstate 4 corridor. “Because so many Puerto Ricans have already migrated here, it is easier now,” said Schale, who is based in Tallahassee. “They have homes to go to and support networks in place, which also makes it easier to stay.”

— Frustration stemming from Trump’s initially lackadaisical response to Hurricane Maria might make these new voters even more antagonistic to the GOP. The president has resisted opening up the port of San Juan to foreign ships, for example, and he hasn’t appeared as worried about the damage as he was when he went to Texas for Hurricane Harvey and Florida for Hurricane Irene.

Trump has been pilloried in the Spanish-language press for launching a culture war against the NFL amid the suffering in Puerto Rico. He tweeted more than a dozen times over the weekend about the national anthem, but he was silent and seemed unsympathetic about the damage from the hurricane.

On Monday night, pop star Marc Anthony tweeted angrily at the president: “Mr. President shut the [expletive] up about NFL. Do something about our people in need in #PuertoRico. We are American citizens too.” The post quickly got more than 89,000 retweets and 221,000 likes. Other Latino celebrities like Ricky Martin, Pitbull and Jennifer Lopez also tried to call more public attention to the misery on the ground.

“On Monday when we realized that the president had spent the weekend fighting with football players and their mothers, we realized, ‘Wait a minute. This guy hasn’t said anything about us,’” said Luis A. Miranda, a Democratic consultant in New York who is of Puerto Rican descent. “What crystalized it was Marc Anthony’s tweet.Trump’s tweets are red meat for the third of the country — his base — that is the only thing that he has left. A tweet about Puerto Rico is not good red meat for his base, so he’d rather fight about the American flag and what African American athletes do to raise consciousness.”

Miranda is a board member of the Latino Victory Project, which helps identify and assist Latino candidates running for office. (He’s also the father of Lin-Manuel Miranda, the creator of “Hamilton.”) He said it is crucial for Democrats to capitalize on the new wave of immigrants. “We have to register people and we need to give them good reasons to vote,” Miranda said. “We cannot just go to them three months before the election and say, ‘Vote Democratic,’ or ’Vote for this candidate.’ … Something that energizes people a bit is when there are good Latino candidates.”

— In the face of growing criticism and devastating visuals on cable news, the administration is finally ratcheting up its response. “In the first six days after the hurricane made landfall … the Navy had deployed just two ships, citing concerns that Puerto Rico’s ports were too damaged to accommodate numerous large vessels. But harrowing reports of isolated U.S. citizens struggling in the heat without electricity and running low on food and water have now spurred the Pentagon to throw resources into the relief effort,” The Washington Post’s Arelis R. Hernández, Dan Lamothe, Ed O’Keefe and Joel Achenbach report on the front page of today’s paper. “The more robust approach includes the deployment of the USNS Comfort, a hospital ship that has responded to other natural disasters. The Pentagon also has assigned an Army general as point person for the humanitarian crisis: Brig. Gen. Richard C. Kim …

  • Puerto Rican officials said that 10 military vessels are en route to the island and that half should arrive within 48 hours. A ship arrived Tuesday with 262,000 barrels of fuel for distribution to gas stations across the island.
  • The Pentagon’s effort to date remains smaller than relief operations marshaled after other major natural disasters, including Katrina in 2005 and the 2013 typhoon that devastated the Philippines. In those cases, the military established a joint task force led by a three-star general.”

— Leading Florida Republicans have been taking this crisis much more seriously than the White House since the beginning. They clearly recognize the political risk of antagonizing a political bloc this big in their own backyard.

Gov. Rick Scott (R-Fla.), who may challenge Democratic Sen. Bill Nelson next year, is flying to Puerto Rico today to help coordinate recovery efforts on the island. “On Tuesday Scott placed the National Guard on standby to help Puerto Rico,” the Orlando Sentinel reports. “He visited Kissimmee on Wednesday to meet with volunteers helping Maria recovery efforts.”

Former governor Jeb Bush has been posting stories about the devastation on social media. “Time to take it up several notches,” he tweeted yesterday, linking to a story about people being unable to get medical care on the island. On Monday, Bush retweeted this post from a former governor of Puerto Rico:

Republicans also see opportunities to make inroads with Puerto Ricans. They tend to identify as socially conservative, and while they vote for Democrats they don’t strongly identify with the party.

The LIBRE Initiative, which is part of the Koch network, has spent millions trying to engage with the Puerto Rican community across Florida over the past few years. The effort tries to give Latinos tools for upward mobility, such as offering English classes in Orlando, Kissimmee and Miami. The group is working to help new arrivals from Puerto Rico with training for job interviews, etc.

— The types of Puerto Ricans coming in this new wave are likely to look slightly different from the ones who came before. The average immigrant who has come in recent years tended to be younger: searching for jobs and opportunities. “You’re going to see a lot of frail people or elderly people with health needs who will be overrepresented in this flow,” said Edwin Meléndez, the director of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies at Hunter College in New York. “The health infrastructure has crumbled. … It will continue to be younger people searching for employment, but across the board it will also be more people who are dependent on government to survive.”

Meléndez expects a lot of retirees to come to Florida who have heretofore been reluctant to leave their home towns. “People can’t talk to their families right now, but the minute people can get through to their families, they’re going to start buying them airplane tickets to get out of there,” he said. “It’s chain migration. … Florida is kind to the elderly. People have the same Social Security card, whether they’re here or in Puerto Rico.”


— The Daily 202 LIVE: I’m sitting down with OMB Director Mick Mulvaney next Wednesday, Oct. 4. We’ll talk about the White House’s tax plan, efforts to cut federal regulations and much more. The program starts at 10:30 a.m. at The Post’s headquarters. (Click here to RSVP.)


— Hugh Hefner died at the age of 91. Matt Schudel writes of Hefner: “As much as anyone, [he] turned the world on to sex. As the visionary editor who created Playboy magazine out of sheer will and his own fevered dreams, he introduced nudity and sexuality to the cultural mainstream of America and the world. For decades, the ageless Mr. Hefner embodied the ‘Playboy lifestyle’ as the pajama-clad sybarite who worked from his bed, threw lavish parties and inhabited the Playboy Mansion with an ever-changing bevy of well-toned young beauties. … ‘I’m living a grown-up version of a boy’s dream, turning life into a celebration,’ he told Time magazine in 1967. ‘It’s all over too quickly. Life should be more than a vale of tears.’”


  1. Both the Taliban and ISIS claimed responsibility Wednesday for an hours-long string of rocket attacks targeting Kabul’s international airport, which began just hours after Defense Secretary Jim Mattis arrived in the capital for a meeting with Afghan officials. Mattis was miles away when the blasts began, officials said, but one civilian was killed and at least 11 others were injured. (Sayed Salahuddin)
  2. An overwhelming majority of Kurds have voted to secede from Iraq, approving by nearly 93 percent a nonbinding referendum that has drawn intense opposition from the country’s central government, as well as regional neighbors Turkey and Iran. (Tamer El-Ghobashy and Kareem Fahim)
  3. The Trump administration plans to cap 2018 refugee admissions at 45,000, according to a State Department report. The figure represents the lowest cap since 1980. (Matt Zapotosky and Carol Morello)
  4. The FBI is conducting about 1,000 investigations of suspected white supremacists or other types of domestic terrorism, FBI Director Christopher Wray told the Senate. (Devlin Barrett)
  5. When Jared Kushner registered to vote in 2009 in the state of New York, he reportedly did so as a female. News of his error quickly went viral, prompting many online to speculate how, or why, the president’s senior aide and son-in-law could have bungled the question. (Rachel Chason)
  6. Nearly all Americans are better off financially since the Great Recession, according to a new report from the Federal Reserve, with minorities and adults without high school diplomas showing the greatest gains since 2013. (Heather Long and Tracy Jan)
  7. Louisville basketball coach Rick Pitino was reportedly ousted on Wednesday, ending his 16-season career at one of the country’s college basketball powerhouses in the aftermath of a wide-ranging federal corruption case. (Matt Bonesteel)
  8. Seeking electoral relevance, California Gov. Jerry Brown (D) signed a bill moving the state’s primary elections to early March. The decision — which was motivated in part by Trump’s election — comes after years of trying and failing to entice major candidates to campaign in the state. (LA Times)
  9. Ireland will hold a referendum on whether to lift its ban on abortion next year, paving the way to potentially relax the law that is among the most restrictive in the Western world. (New York Times)
  10. Paul Homer, a well-known fake news writer who for years made a living off disseminating viral hoaxes, was found dead in his home earlier this month, police said. Home also told The Post last year that he thinks he could have helped Trump win the White House. He was 38. (NBC News)
  11. Barack Obama revealed he cried when dropping daughter Malia off at college last month. In an unannounced speech to fundraise for the Beau Biden foundation, Obama said, “I was proud I did not cry in front of her. But on the way back, the Secret Service was looking straight ahead, pretending they weren’t hearing me.” (Avi Selk)
  12. A missing British hiker whose body was found in northern Greece this weekend was likely attacked and “devoured” by wolves, coroners concluded after an autopsy on Wednesday. Before her death, the 63-year-old had apparently phoned her brother to say she was being attacked by dogs. (AP)
  13. Investigators believe a Russian “cannibal couple” may have drugged, killed and eaten as many as 30 people near the military academy where they worked — at times slipping canned human meat into others’ food to turn them into unwitting cannibals. If confirmed, the couple would rank among Russia’s worst serial killers. (Cleve R. Wootson Jr.)


— In “one of the more staid performances of his tenure,” Trump assured rally attendees in Indianapolis that Republicans’ tax plan would aid the middle class and that his faltering agenda would succeed, John Wagner reports. “Whether the more disciplined approach will last or serve Trump well in what promises to be a tough legislative battle remains to be seen. … Trump made a point Wednesday of appealing to Democrats on taxes. … He brought with him on Air Force One one of those Democrats — Sen. Joe Donnelly of Indiana. During his remarks, Trump said he hoped Donnelly would be with him — and threatened to return to the Hoosier State to campaign against him if it turns out he’s not.

— Even though Trump told his supporters that the plan would be “not good for me,” wealthy Americans appear to be the most direct beneficiaries of tax code rewrite rolled out yesterday. The New York Times’s Binyamin Appelbaum writes: “The administration and its congressional allies are proposing to sharply reduce taxation of business income, primarily benefiting the small share of the population that owns the vast majority of corporate equity. … The plan would also benefit Mr. Trump and other affluent Americans by eliminating the estate tax, which affects just a few thousand uber-wealthy families each year, and the alternative minimum tax, a safety net designed to prevent tax avoidance. … The alternative minimum tax has been unkind to Mr. Trump. In 2005, it forced him to pay $31 million in additional taxes. …

“While some [middle-class] households would probably get tax cuts, others could end up paying more. The plan would not benefit lower-income households that do not pay federal income taxes. The president is not proposing measures like a reduction in payroll taxes, which are paid by a much larger share of workers, nor an increase in the earned-income tax credit, which would expand wage support for the working poor. Indeed, to call the plan ‘tax reform’ seems like a stretch[.]”

— Heather Long has a good, plain-English breakdown of what’s in the nine-page document. The bottom line: three different tax brackets for individuals and a corporate tax rate of 20 percent (higher than the 15 percent Trump originally insisted on). And very few revenue raisers that would pay for it.

— Now comes the hard part. The “Big Six” tax negotiators intentionally didn’t outline how they wouldn’t send the deficit skyrocketing by slashing tax rates for individuals and businesses. They’re leaving that spade work up to Republicans in the committee process. But it won’t be easy to eliminate coveted deductions amounting to about $3 trillion in revenue, Sen. Pat Toomey (R-Pa.) told Damian Paletta, Mike DeBonis and Carolyn Y. Johnson.

–Congressional Republicans plan to use the budget reconciliation process to pass their proposal (though that didn’t work out so well for health care), and Toomey said he hoped that the Senate budget resolution would be on the floor next week and then be taken up by the House.

–Using budget rules means leadership won’t have to nab Democratic votes to succeed. But it also means nearly all Republicans must support the plan, a tall order. More from Damian, Mike and Carolyn: “Democratic leaders will try to keep their party united in opposition, and on Wednesday they charged the GOP with proposing a huge tax cut to the wealthy but offering little for anyone else. … The House Freedom Caucus, a key holdout bloc of conservative lawmakers, endorsed the tax framework Wednesday, setting up a floor vote on the House budget as soon as next week. That would set up a conference between the chambers, with senior Republicans expecting the final, consensus budget resolution to closely resemble the Senate version.”


— “As [Trump] headed to Huntsville, Ala., in a last-ditch effort to lift the floundering campaign of Sen. Luther Strange, [he] was fuming,” Robert Costa writes in an A1 story, “feeling dragged along by GOP senators who had pleaded with him to go and increasingly unenthusiastic about Strange[.] … For Trump, the trip to Alabama marked the dispiriting start to one of the lowest and perhaps most damaging stretches of his already troubled presidency, leaving him further weakened and isolated with few ways out of the thicket of challenges he faces, according to a half dozen people[.]  

His agitation only worsened on the flight back last Friday. Trump bemoaned the headlines he expected to see once Strange was defeated — that he had stumbled and lost his grip on ‘my people,’ as he calls his core voters. He also lamented the rally crowd’s tepid response to the 6-foot-9 incumbent he liked to call ‘Big Luther.’ … Several of Trump’s longtime friends and associates said he is doing what he always does in times of trouble: attempt to overwhelm with liveliness. But they acknowledged that Trump may not be enjoying the experience. ‘I’m told he’s unhappy,’ said veteran Republican consultant Roger Stone. ‘He’s surrounded by people who don’t understand politics and don’t understand why he won the presidency.’”

— Strange’s defeat served as a reminder to Trump that his supporters won’t “follow him blindly,” as one pro-Trump Alabama voter told Michael Scherer. “In the end, Alabama Republicans decided to go with the candidate who most resembled Trump’s renegade spirit, even if it meant going against Trump’s candidate. … Such sentiments should send warning signs to other incumbent Republicans who are hoping the president could provide them cover in tough primaries next year. … Republican voters have made clear that they are less interested in policy positions than in finding candidates who, like Trump, promise to shake up the Washington establishment.”

— The GOP has become a potentially “unsustainable” coalition, The Post’s chief correspondent Dan Balz writes, evidenced first by Trump’s presidential campaign and sealed by Roy Moore’s victory. “The party establishment proved powerless in its efforts to deny Trump the GOP nomination last year, then … nonetheless held out hope that [he] would follow their lead on policy and use the unique megaphone that he has developed to advance the cause. But that assumption turned out to be incorrect for at least two reasons[:] First, that Trump’s agenda was their agenda, that he was as interested in party success as in personal success. Second, that the divisions that had immobilized congressional Republicans long before Trump became a candidate would somehow disappear if the party controlled the White House. They didn’t. … Trump’s coalition is not the Republican coalition and never has been.

“The GOP today is an awkward combination of establishment Republicans who have embraced the president out of what they consider necessity; grass-roots citizens [for] whom Trump’s populist, ‘America first,’ anti-Washington rhetoric strikes a chord; and ‘Never Trump’ Republicans … who are looking for a home and don’t know what to do. This is a conflict with no certain outcome and no clear timeline. It reflects instability across the political spectrum and the shifting sensibilities of many voters. Above all, it reflects politics in the age of Trump and all that has come to mean.”

— “Republicans increasingly worry that their base’s contempt for [Mitch] McConnell is more potent than its love for Mr. Trump,” writes the New York Times’s Alexander Burns and Jonathan Martin. “Mr. McConnell could be an anchor around incumbents in the same fashion as [Nancy Pelosi], who is routinely used to undermine Democratic candidates. … The convulsive mood on the right has considerably reshaped the political map for 2018, making a favorable list of Senate races somewhat less hospitable to Republicans.” Emboldened by Moore’s victory, Steve Bannon told the Times that he is now looking at far-right candidates to support for the 2018 Senate races in Tennessee, Arizona, Nevada and Mississippi. 

— “If Democrats are ever going to have a shot — however remote — at a Senate seat in Alabama, this is it,” Politico’s Gabriel Debenedetti reports. “At least that’s the immediate reaction within the local party and among some excited national Democrats [in] the wake of [Moore’s] primary victory[.] … Republicans say Democrats are deluding themselves. [Trump] won Alabama by 28 points last year and the state hasn’t elected a Democrat to the Senate in over two decades . . . The Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee is poised to start polling the state as it weighs whether to invest in the race. [Joe] Biden is flying in for a Jones rally in Birmingham next week. Operatives aligned with the former U.S. attorney are expecting a gush of campaign cash in the coming days. … So now, these Jones-backing Democrats are asking, will the cavalry arrive in time?” Dave Weigel takes a good look at Doug Jones, the Democratic nominee for the Dec. 12 special election.

— Senate Republicans spent yesterday ducking questions about Moore’s controversial past. Politico’s John Bresnahan reports: “[Moore’s] potential future Senate GOP colleagues insist they’re not aware of the years of inflammatory comments and actions by the Alabama jurist. And they’re not going to ‘pre-judge’ Moore at all because, well, he’ll just be one of 100 senators and they’re all equal in the World’s Greatest Deliberative Body. Well-trained by now in ducking the latest Trump verbal or online gaffe, the only thing that matters for party leaders is what Moore does from now on [.]”

  • Moore’s latest controversy: “Pro-Confederate activists twice held events to commemorate Alabama’s 1861 secession from the United States at the headquarters of the foundation led at the time by [Moore.]” (CNN’s Chris Massie and Andrew Kaczynski)

Trump is behind Moore (and indeed so embarrassed by his support of Strange erased several pro-Strange tweets):


— Trump said Wednesday that he is “not happyabout news that his HHS secretary, Tom Price, for taking numerous private jet flights on the taxpayer dime. David Nakamura reports: “Responding to questions from reporters, Trump said he is ‘looking into’ the situation and ‘personally, I’m not happy about it, and I let him know it.’ Price has been under fire for using public funds to pay for private flights more than two dozen times … mixing in some personal travel with business trips. The president appeared to suggest that he would considering firing Price, saying, ‘I’m going to look at it’ after a reporter asked about Price’s future, though it was not completely clear if Trump was answering that direct question. Later, asked again about whether he would fire Price, Trump said, ‘We’ll see.’” (Robert Costa tweeted last night that Price was expected to stay, for now).

— It’s contagious: EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt has taken at least four charter and military flights since February, costing taxpayers more than $58,000. Brady Dennis and Juliet Eilperin report. “’When the administrator travels, he takes commercial flights,’ EPA spokeswoman Liz Bowman said Wednesday, explaining that the one charter flight and three government flights were due to particular circumstances. … The most expensive of the four trips came in early June, when Pruitt traveled from Andrews Air Force Base to Cincinnati to join [Trump] as he pitched a plan to revamp U.S. infrastructure. From there, the administrator and several staff members continued on a military jet to John F. Kennedy airport in New York to catch a flight to Italy for an international meeting[.] … The cost of that flight was $36,068.50. …. The records also indicate that Pruitt, along with a member of his security detail, flies either in business or first class when those seats are available on commercial flights.”

— Ryan Zinke blasted many Interior Department employees this week as being “disloyal” to Trump’s agenda. Now, the agency’s inspector general is investigating whether Zinke’s own reassignments within the department have broken the law. Darryl Fears reports: “Deputy Inspector General Mary Kendall is working ‘to determine if the [department] followed appropriate guidelines and best practices in the reassignment of Senior Executive Service employees[.]’ … The reassigned workers include Joel Clement, a climate scientist who was removed from his job as director of policy analysis and reassigned to a revenue accounting position for which he has no experience. Clement said Interior officials never discussed his reassignment with him before he received a notice in June. … ‘He believes … that the administration targeted him because he was speaking out about the danger [of climate change] …’ said the attorney representing Clement.”

— Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch has a full schedule of speaking events for Republican-aligned groups, leading some to question his independence on the bench. Robert Barnes reports: “His supporters say Gorsuch’s appearances are little different from those other justices make. … But Gorsuch’s detractors see the speeches as hand-delivered thank-you notes, undermining attempts to present himself as an independent-minded justice. ‘All of this indicates that he’s just ethically tone-deaf,’ said Deborah L. Rhode, a Stanford University law professor and highly cited authority on legal ethics. … Some conservatives say the criticism of Gorsuch is unfair. … What might really be troubling Gorsuch’s critics, said Dennis Hutchinson, a University of Chicago law professor and student of the Supreme Court, are his conservatism and assertiveness.”

— One of Jared Kushner’s real estate companies has been sued for predatory overcharging practices. The Daily Beast’s Betsy Woodruff reports: “A class action lawsuit filed in Maryland State Court this morning alleges that Westminster Management, a company owned by [Kushner], charged its tenants improper fees, and then used their failure to pay those fees as a basis to threaten them with eviction. ‘Westminster is preying on poor and working class people, by extorting what may sound like small fees but is real money when you’re living paycheck to paycheck,’ said Andrew Freeman, an attorney [representing] two plaintiffs[.] … According to the suit, Westminster Management charged late fees that are higher than allowed by Maryland state law . . . According to Kushner’s latest financial disclosure forms, Westminster Management remains a source of income, bringing him nearly $1.5 million in income for gross management fees and wages.”


— The Senate Judiciary Committee’s top Democrat said yesterday that the committee has agreed in principle to subpoena Paul Manafort in the Russia probe, just a day after news broke the committee would subpoena documents from Manafort. A representative for Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) did not specify when Manafort may testify. Meanwhile, the spokesman for Senate Judiciary Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) said the committee had reached “several general agreements in principle this week,” but it had not finalized details. (Karoun Demirjian)

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