Here’s what’s involved in impeaching a president in South Korea – Washington Post
South Korean politicians are pressing ahead with moves to impeach President Park Geun-hye, trying to force her out of office if she won’t resign over her involvement in a corruption and influence-peddling scandal.
Park, South Korea’s first female president and daughter of former military coup leader Park Chung-hee, is now fighting for her political life.
Prosecutors have accused her of being an accomplice to crimes leveled against Choi Soon-sil, her close friend of 40 years, and two presidential aides. Choi has been indicted on charges including extortion, fraud and abuse of power, as has one former presidential secretary. The other is accused of divulging classified information.
Hundreds of thousands of people have taken to the streets of Seoul every weekend for the past month — and another huge protest is scheduled for Saturday — to call on Park to stand down. A Realmeter poll published Thursday found that 86 percent of respondents disapproved of Park’s performance, with 80 percent saying that she should be impeached.
But she has remained defiant, refusing to be questioned by prosecutors and instead approving a special counsel to investigate. Through her spokesman, she has denied all the charges, which her attorney has dismissed as “imagined.”
That now makes impeachment the best option for forcing her out — even though it could be a long and drawn out process. Critics say Park is trying to run out the clock.
“We will immediately review the timing and procedure of impeachment and will establish an organization to proceed and review the process,” Choo Mi-ae, the leader of the main opposition Democratic Party, said Monday, a day after the prosecutors’ office named Park as a suspect.
What are the grounds for impeaching a president in South Korea?
This is what Article 65 of the Constitution says:
“In case the President … [has] have violated the Constitution or other Acts in the performance of the official duties, the National Assembly may pass motions for their impeachment.”
To start the process, one-third of the members of the National Assembly must propose an impeachment motion, with the agreement of a simple majority of lawmakers. The motion must then be approved by at least two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly.
“Any person against whom a motion for impeachment has been passed shall be suspended from exercising his power until the impeachment has been adjudicated,” the Constitution states.
Impeachment “shall not exempt the person impeached from civil or criminal liability,” it continues. That means that the immunity from prosecution that the president enjoys in office ends the day he or she leaves.
Why have politicians been reluctant to start this process?
Because it’s going to take a long time, and Park will leave office anyway in February 2018, after elections that are set to be held in December 2017. And it’s far from guaranteed that this will actually succeed.
So politicians had been hoping that the public pressure — as evidenced in the weekly protests and poll numbers that are as low as 5 percent — would force Park to resign.
But her continued defiance, coupled with Sunday’s indictments, have spurred critical politicians to action.
How are the numbers shaping up?
The Democratic Party, which is preparing to start impeachment proceedings, has 121 seats in the 300-member assembly, while the People’s Party, which supports impeachment, has 38.
With the third opposition group, the Justice Party, they get to 165, easily putting them over the simple majority needed to bring the motion. Adding in the six independents, they get to 171.
But the question is whether they can win enough support from Park’s ruling Saenuri Party to reach 200 and cross the two-thirds threshold needed to pass the motion.
Some prominent Saenuri members have publicly turned against Park.
Kim Moo-sung, who used to be party chairman and was Park’s chief campaign manager when she ran for the presidency in 2012, said this week that he would sponsor a motion to impeach her.
“A president who violated the Constitution must be impeached,” he told reporters. “In order to reinvent the conservatives and to take the responsibility before the people, I will lead a discussion inside the Saenuri Party to sponsor a motion to impeach her.”
But how many Saenuri lawmakers will go with him? At least 29 must unite with the opposition parties to vote against Park and pass the motion.
Given how many ruling party representatives have publicly criticized Park, analysts say it is feasible that they could overcome the 200 mark.